Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model evaluation paper
29 Aug 2016
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Continuous high resolution mid-latitude belt simulations for July–August 2013 with WRF
Thomas Schwitalla, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Kirsten Warrach-Sagi Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstrasse 30, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
Abstract. The impact of a convection permitting (CP) northern hemisphere latitude-belt simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was investigated during the July and August 2013. For this application, the WRF model together with the NOAH land-surface model (LSM) was applied at two different horizontal resolutions, 0.03° (HIRES) and 0.12° (LOWRES). The set-up as a latitude-belt domain avoids disturbances that originate from the western and eastern boundaries and therefore allows to study the impact of model resolution and physical parameterizations on the results. Both simulations were forced by ECMWF operational analysis data at the northern and southern domain boundaries and the high-resolution Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) data at the sea surface. The simulations are compared to the operational ECMWF analysis for the representation of large scale features. To compare the simulated precipitation, the operational ECMWF forecast, the CPC MORPHing (CMORPH), and the ENSEMBLES gridded observation precipitation data set (E-OBS) were used.

Compared to the operational high-resolution ECMWF analysis, both simulations are able to capture the large scale circulation pattern though the strength of the Pacific high is considerably overestimated in the LOWRES simulation. Major differences between ECMWF and WRF occur during July 2013 when the lower resolution simulation shows a significant negative bias over the North Atlantic which is not observed in the CP simulation. The analysis indicates deficiencies in the applied combinations of cloud microphysics and convection parametrization on the coarser grid scale in subpolar regions. The overall representation of the 500 hPa geopotential height surface is also improved by the CP simulation compared to the LOWRES simulation apart across Newfoundland where the geopotential height is higher than in the LOWRES simulation due to a northward shift of the location of the Atlantic high pressure system.

Both simulations show higher wind speeds in the boundary layer by about 1.5 m s−1 compared to the the ECMWF analysis. Due to the higher surface evaporation, this results in a moist bias of 0.5 g kg−1 at 925 hPa in the planetary boundary layer compared to the ECMWF analysis. Major differences between ECMWF and WRF occur in the simulation of the 2-m temperatures over the Asian desert and steppe regions. They are significantly higher in WRF by about 5 K both during day- and night-time presumably as a result of different soil hydraulic parameters used in the NOAH land surface model for steppe regions.

The precipitation of the HIRES simulation shows a better spatial agreement with CMORPH especially over mountainous terrain. The overall bias reduces from 80 mm at the coarser resolution to 50 mm in the HIRES simulation and the root mean square error is reduced by about 35 % when compared to the CMORPH precipitation analysis. The precipitation distribution agrees much better with the CMORPH data than the LOWRES simulation which tends to overestimate precipitation, mainly caused by the convection parametrization. Especially over Europe the CP resolution reduces the precipitation bias by about 30 % to 20 mm as a result of a better terrain representation and due to the avoidance of the convection parameterization.

Citation: Schwitalla, T., Bauer, H.-S., Wulfmeyer, V., and Warrach-Sagi, K.: Continuous high resolution mid-latitude belt simulations for July–August 2013 with WRF, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., doi:10.5194/gmd-2016-195, in review, 2016.
Thomas Schwitalla et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
RC1: 'Comments to gmd-2016-195', Anonymous Referee #1, 09 Nov 2016 Printer-friendly Version 
AC1: 'Reply to comments of Referee 1', Thomas Schwitalla, 24 Feb 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
RC2: 'Reviewer comments', Anonymous Referee #2, 25 Nov 2016 Printer-friendly Version 
AC2: 'Reply to comments of Referee 2', Thomas Schwitalla, 24 Feb 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Thomas Schwitalla et al.
Thomas Schwitalla et al.


Total article views: 295 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
191 90 14 295 11 17

Views and downloads (calculated since 29 Aug 2016)

Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 29 Aug 2016)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 295 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

Thereof 292 with geography defined and 3 with unknown origin.

Country # Views %
  • 1



Latest update: 23 May 2017
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Due to computational constraints, extended range forecasts on the convection-permitting (CP) scale are often performed using a limited-area model. To overcome disturbances by lateral boundary conditions, a CP latitude belt simulation of the northern hemisphere was performed for July and August 2013. This approach allows for the study of resolution and parameterization impacts. The results demonstrate an improved representation of the general circulation and precipitation pattern.
Due to computational constraints, extended range forecasts on the convection-permitting (CP)...