Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/gmd-2017-10
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Development and technical paper
20 Feb 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).
Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO–LIM3.6 based ocean–sea ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea
Per Pemberton1, Ulrike Löptien3, Robinson Hordoir2, Anders Höglund2, Semjon Schimanke2, Lars Axell2, and Jari Haapala4 1Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 426 71 Gothenburg, Sweden
2Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 601 76 Norrköping, Sweden
3GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany
4Finnish Meteorological Institute, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
Abstract. The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO–LIM3.6 based ocean–sea ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region. The setup includes a new depth-based fast ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. Different sea-ice metrics such as sea-ice extent, concentration and thickness are compared to the best available observational dataset to identify model biases. Overall the model agrees well with the observations in terms of the long-term mean sea-ice extent and thickness. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations but the 1961–2006 trend is underestimated. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations. We conclude that the new North Sea/Baltic Sea ocean–sea ice setup is well suited for further climate studies and sea ice forecasts.

Citation: Pemberton, P., Löptien, U., Hordoir, R., Höglund, A., Schimanke, S., Axell, L., and Haapala, J.: Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO–LIM3.6 based ocean–sea ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., doi:10.5194/gmd-2017-10, in review, 2017.
Per Pemberton et al.
Per Pemberton et al.
Per Pemberton et al.

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Short summary
The Baltic Sea is seasonally ice covered with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting. Our work introduces a new model setup for the North Sea/Baltic Sea and a new method to handle ice in the coastal zone, an important feature in the Baltic Sea. We evaluate different sea ice parameters and overall finds that the model agrees well with the observation and is well suited for further studies.
The Baltic Sea is seasonally ice covered with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive...
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