The BRIDGE HadCM3 family of climate models:
Paul J. Valdes1, Edward Armstrong1, Marcus P. S. Badger1,2, Catherine D. Bradshaw3, Fran Bragg1, Taraka Davies-Barnard1, Jonathan J. Day4, Alex Farnsworth1, Peter O. Hopcroft1, Alan T. Kennedy1, Natalie S. Lord1, Dan J. Lunt1, Alice Marzocchi5, Louise M. Parry1,6, William H. G. Roberts1, Emma J. Stone1, Gregory J. L. Tourte1, and Jonny H. T. Williams71School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK 2School of Environment, Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK 3Applied Science group, Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK 4Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK 5Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA 6Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), Perth, UK 7National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand
Received: 20 Jan 2017 – Accepted for review: 30 Jan 2017 – Discussion started: 08 Feb 2017
Abstract. Understanding natural and anthropogenic climate change processes involves using computational models that represent the main components of the Earth system: the atmosphere, ocean, sea-ice and land surface. These models have become increasingly computationally expensive as resolution is increased and more complex process representations are included. However, to gain robust insight into how climate may respond to a given forcing, and to meaningfully quantify the associated uncertainty, it is often required to use either or both of ensemble approaches and very long integrations. For this reason, more computationally efficient models can be very valuable tools. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the suite of climate models based around the coupled general circulation model HadCM3. This model was originally developed at the UK Met Office and has been heavily used during the last 15 years for a range of future (and past) climate change studies but is now largely being replaced by more recent models. However, it continues to be extensively used by the BRIDGE (Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment) research group at the University of Bristol and elsewhere. Over time, adaptations have been made to the base HadCM3 model. These adaptations mean that the original documentation is not entirely representative, and several other configurations are in use which now differ from the originally described model versions. We therefore describe the key features of a number of configurations of the HadCM3 climate model family, including the atmosphere-only model (HadAM3), the coupled model with a low resolution ocean (HadCM3L), the high resolution atmosphere only model (HadAM3H), the regional model (HadRM3) and a fast coupled model (FAMOUS), which together make up HadCM3@Bristol version 1.0. These also include three versions of the land surface scheme. By comparing with observational datasets, we show that these models produce a good representation of many aspects of the climate system, including the land and sea surface temperatures, precipitation, ocean circulation and vegetation. This evaluation, combined with the relatively fast computational speed (up to 2000× faster than some CMIP6 models), motivates continued development and scientific use of the HadCM3 family of coupled climate models, particularly for quantifying uncertainty and for long multi-millennial scale simulations.
Valdes, P. J., Armstrong, E., Badger, M. P. S., Bradshaw, C. D., Bragg, F., Davies-Barnard, T., Day, J. J., Farnsworth, A., Hopcroft, P. O., Kennedy, A. T., Lord, N. S., Lunt, D. J., Marzocchi, A., Parry, L. M., Roberts, W. H. G., Stone, E. J., Tourte, G. J. L., and Williams, J. H. T.: The BRIDGE HadCM3 family of climate models:
HadCM3@Bristol v1.0, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., doi:10.5194/gmd-2017-16, in review, 2017.