DasPy 1.0 – the Open Source Multivariate Land Data Assimilation Framework in combination with the Community Land Model 4.5
Summary: DasPy is a ready to use open source parallel multivariate land data assimilation framework with joint state and parameter estimation using Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter. The Community Land Model (4.5) was integrated as model operator. The Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform, COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code and the Two-Source Formulation were integrated as observation operators for the multivariate assimilation of soil moisture and soil temperature, respectively.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 7395-7444, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-7395-2015, 2015
A low-order coupled chemistry meteorology model for testing online and offline data assimilation schemes
Summary: The focus is on the development of low-order models of atmospheric transport and chemistry and their use for data assimilation purposes. A new low-order coupled chemistry meteorology model is developed. It consists of the Lorenz40-variable model used as a wind field coupled with a simple ozone photochemistry module. Advanced ensemble variational methods are applied to this model to obtain insights on the use of data assimilation with coupled models, in an offline mode or in an online mode.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 7347-7394, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-7347-2015, 2015
Tracking influential haze source areas in North China using an adjoint model, GRAPES–CUACE
Summary: The adjoint of the aerosol module in the the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE was developed, tested for its correctness and used in a receptor-source sensitivity test. The results showed that controlling critical emission-sources during critical time intervals on the basis of adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative specified regions during an experiential time period.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 7313-7345, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-7313-2015, 2015
Quantifying the impact of sub-grid surface wind variability on sea salt and dust emissions in CAM5
Summary: A sub-grid treatment based on Weibull distribution is introduced to CAM5 to take into account the impact of unresolved variability of surface wind speed on sea salt and dust emissions. Simulations show that sub-grid wind variability has relatively small impacts on the global mean sea salt emissions, but considerable influence on dust emissions. Dry convective eddies and mesoscale flows associated with complex topography are the major causes of dust emission enhancement.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 7249-7312, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-7249-2015, 2015
CESM/CAM5 improvement and application: comparison and evaluation of updated CB05_GE and MOZART-4 gas-phase mechanisms and associated impacts on global air quality and climate
Summary: The global simulations with CB05_GE and MOZART-4x predict similar chemical profiles for major gases compared to aircraft measurements, with better agreement for NOy profile by CB05_GE. The SOA concentrations of SOA at four sites in CONUS and organic carbon over the IMPROVE sites are better predicted by MOZART-4x. The two simulations result in a global average difference of 0.5W m-2 in simulated shortwave cloud radiative forcing, with up to 13.6W m-2 over subtropical regions.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 7189-7247, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-7189-2015, 2015
ERSEM 15.06: a generic model for marine biogeochemistry and the ecosystem dynamics of the lower trophic levels
Summary: ERSEM 15.06 is a model for marine biogeochemistry and the lower trophic levels of the marine food-web. It comprises a pelagic and benthic sub-model including the microbial food-web and the major biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate and iron using dynamic stochiometry. Further features include modules for the carbonate system and calcification. We present full mathematical descriptions of all elements along with examples at various scales up to 3D applications.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 7063-7187, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-7063-2015, 2015
Towards convection-resolving, global atmospheric simulations with the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS): an extreme scaling experiment
Summary: We first present an in-depth evaluation of the Model For Prediction across Scales (MPAS) with regards to technical aspects of performing model runs and scalability for medium-size meshes on several HPCs. We also demonstrate the model performance of MPAS in terms of its capability to reproduce the dynamics of the West African Monsoon and its associated precipitation. Finally, we conduct extreme scaling tests on a global 3km mesh with 65,536,002 horizontal grid cells on up to 458,752 cores.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6987-7061, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6987-2015, 2015
Simulating the thermal regime and thaw processes of ice-rich permafrost ground with the land-surface model CryoGrid 3
Summary: Thawing of permafrost is governed by a complex interplay of different processes, of which only conductive heat transfer is taken into account in most model studies. We present a new land-surface scheme designed for permafrost applications, CryoGrid 3, which constitutes a flexible platform to explore new parameterizations for a range of permafrost processes.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6931-6986, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6931-2015, 2015
Validation of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (v.5.1) against eddy covariance data for ten European forest sites
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6867-6929, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6867-2015, 2015
The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally-gridded forcing data
Summary: In an effort to develop a global terrestrial evaporation product, four models were forced using both a tower and grid-based dataset. Comparisons against flux-tower observations from different biome and landcover types showed considerable inter-model variability and sensitivity to forcing type. Results suggest that no single model is able to capture expected flux patterns and response. Rather, it is suggested that a multi-model ensemble is likely to provide a more stable long-term flux estimate.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6809-6866, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6809-2015, 2015
The simple two-dimensional parameterisation for Flux Footprint Predictions FFP
Summary: Flux footprint models describe the surface area of influence of a flux measurement. They are used for designing flux tower sites, and for interpretation of flux measurements. The two-dimensional footprint parameterisation FFP presented here is suitable for processing large data sets, and, unlike other fast footprint models, FFP is applicable to day- or nighttime measurements, fluxes from short masts over grassland to tall towers over mature forests, and even to airborne flux measurements.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6757-6808, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6757-2015, 2015
Decadal evaluation of regional climate, air quality, and their interactions using WRF/Chem Version 3.6.1
Summary: The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) v3.6.1 is evaluated for its first decadal application during 2001 - 2010 using the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 emissions. The model evaluation shows acceptable performance for long-term climatological simulations of most meteorological variables and chemical concentrations. Larger biases exist for aerosol-cloud-radiation variables, for which future model improvement should focus on.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6707-6756, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6707-2015, 2015
Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas – Part 2: Biogeochemistry
Summary: An operational ocean forecasting system was developed to monitor the state of the Indonesian seas in terms of circulation, biogeochemistry and fisheries (INDESO project). Here we describe the skill assessment of the physical-biogeochemical coupled model configuration. Model results reproduce the main characteristics of biogeochemical tracer distributions in space and time (phasing of chlorophyll bloom, nutrient and oxygen distributions, water mass transformation across the archipelago.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6669-6706, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6669-2015, 2015
Evaluation of an operational ocean model configuration at 1/12° spatial resolution for the Indonesian seas – Part 1: Ocean physics
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6611-6668, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6611-2015, 2015
A Factorial Snowpack Model (FSM 1.0)
Summary: Models of snow on the ground need to represent processes of solar radiation absorption, heat conduction, liquid water movement and compaction in snow and transfers of heat from the atmosphere. There are many such models in use, but their wide range in complexity makes it hard to understand how differences in process representations determine differences in predictions. Processes in the Factorial Snow Model can be switched on or off independently, allowing highly controlled numerical experiments.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6583-6609, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6583-2015, 2015
WRF4G: WRF experiment management made simple
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6551-6582, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6551-2015, 2015
Implementation of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1, version 1.2.1) as a new basemodel into version 2.50 of the MESSy framework
Summary: The Community Earth System Model (CESM1) is connected to the the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) as a new basemodel. This allows MESSy users the option to utilize either the state-of-the art spectral element atmosphere dynamical core or the finite volume core of CESM1. Additionally, this makes several other component models available to MESSy users.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6523-6550, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6523-2015, 2015
Modeling global water use for the 21st century: Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative and its approaches
Summary: The Water Futures and Solutions initiative (WFaS) coordinates its work with other on-going scenario efforts for the sake of establishing a consistent set of new global water scenarios based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The WFaS “fast-track” assessment uses three global water models: H08, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP, to provides the first multi-model analysis of global water use for the 21st century based on the water scenarios.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6417-6521, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6417-2015, 2015
DebrisInterMixing-2.3: a Finite Volume solver for three dimensional debris flow simulations based on a single calibration parameter – Part 2: Model validation
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6379-6415, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6379-2015, 2015
DebrisInterMixing-2.3: a Finite Volume solver for three dimensional debris flow simulations based on a single calibration parameter – Part 1: Model description
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6349-6378, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6349-2015, 2015
GO2OGS: a versatile workflow to integrate complex geological information with fault data into numerical simulation models
Summary: We offer a workflow to convert geological models into the open-source VTU format for the usage in numerical simulation models. Tackling relevant scientific questions or engineering tasks often involves multidisciplinary approaches. Conversion workflows are needed between the diverse tools of the various disciplines. Our approach offers an open-source, platform independent, robust, and comprehensible method that is potentially useful for a multitude of similar environmental studies.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6309-6348, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6309-2015, 2015
Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6267-6307, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6267-2015, 2015
A global scale mechanistic model of the photosynthetic capacity
Summary: We developed a mechanistic model of leaf utilization of nitrogen for assimilation (LUNA V1.0) to predict the photosynthetic capacities at the global scale based on the optimization of key leaf-level metabolic processes. LUNA model predicted that future climatic changes would mostly affect plant photosynthetic capabilities in high-latitude regions and that Earth System models using fixed photosynthetic capabilities were likely to substantially overestimate future global photosynthesis.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6217-6266, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6217-2015, 2015
SHIMMER (1.0): a novel mathematical model for microbial and biogeochemical dynamics in glacier forefield ecosystems
Summary: Recent climate warming causing ice retreat exposes new terrestrial ecosystems that have potentially significant yet largely unexplored roles on large scale biogeochemical cycling and climate. SHIMMER (Soil biogeocHemIcal Model for Microbial Ecosystem Response) is a new numerical model designed to simulate microbial community establishment and elemental cycling (C, N and P) during initial soil formation in exposed glacier forefields. It is also transferable to other extreme ecosystem types.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6143-6216, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6143-2015, 2015
The role of ecosystem function and emergent relationships in the assessment of global marine ecosystem models: a case study with ERSEM
Summary: To use models to inform policy or to forecast the impact of climate change, the model must first be shown to be a valid representation of the ecosystem. Here we show an novel method to validate a marine model using its ability to represent ecosystem function. These relationships are: the community structure, the carbon to chlorophyll ratio and the stoichiometric balance of the ecosystem. These methods are powerful, valid over large spatial scales and independent of the circulation model.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6095-6141, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6095-2015, 2015
Influence of grid aspect ratio on planetary boundary layer turbulence in large-eddy simulations
Summary: The large grid aspect ratio of horizontal to vertical grid spacing is traditionally used in atmospheric large-eddy simulations. The grid aspect ratio could have influences on the simulated turbulence in the atmosphere. In this study, the influences are investigated with a series of sensitivity tests with parameter sweeps of spatial resolution and grid aspect ratio. We confirmed that the grid aspect ratio should be taken account in the sub-grid model to reproduce the theoretical energy spectrum.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 6021-6094, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-6021-2015, 2015
Adjoint of the Global Eulerian–Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric transport model (A-GELCA v1.0): development and validation
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5983-6019, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5983-2015, 2015
A Stochastic, Lagrangian Model of Sinking biogenic aggregates in the ocean (SLAMS 1.0): model formulation, validation and sensitivity
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5931-5982, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5931-2015, 2015
Modelling the dispersion of particle numbers in five European cities
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5873-5930, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5873-2015, 2015
Variability of phenology and fluxes of water and carbon with observed and simulated soil moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM version 220.127.116.11.0)
Summary: The Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model is a mixed-canopy dynamic global vegetation model developed specifically for coupling with land surface hydrology and general circulation models. This study describes the leaf phenology submodel implemented in the Ent TBM. We evaluate the performance in reproducing observed leaf seasonal growth as well as water and carbon fluxes for four plant functional types at five Fluxnet sites.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5809-5871, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5809-2015, 2015
Evaluation of lateral boundary conditions in a regional chemical transport model
Summary: This study investigate the representation of hemispheric transport in a regional chemical transport model (CTM) in terms of lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). We evaluate the LBCs both directly with satellite retrievals and indirectly by forcing a regional CTM with LBCs and compare to in-domain observations. We believe that our work makes an important contribution to the methodology of validating LBCs for regional modelling.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5763-5808, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5763-2015, 2015
Distributed visualization of gridded geophysical data: a web API for carbon flux
Summary: The Carbon Data Explorer is presented as a prototype application for data management, analysis, visualization, and sharing of Earth system science datasets, particularly gridded spatiotemporal datasets (e.g., NASA Level III data products) such as gridded climate model predictions and reanalysis data. In response to CMIP6, the Carbon Data Explorer provides a framework for the distributed analysis of climate model outputs. It is hoped that it will inspire the future development of similar tools.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5741-5761, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5741-2015, 2015
Development and evaluation of CNRM Earth-System model – CNRM-ESM1
Summary: This paper presents the first IPCC-class Earth system model developed at Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM-ESM1). We detail how the various carbon reservoirs were initialized and analyze the behavior of the carbon cycle and its prominent physical drivers, comparing model results to the most up-to-date climate and carbon cycle dataset over the latest decades.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5671-5739, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5671-2015, 2015
Experiments on sensitivity of meridional circulation and ozone flux to parameterizations of orographic gravity waves and QBO phases in a general circulation model of the middle atmosphere
Summary: We implemented improved parameterizations of orographic gravity wave dynamical and thermal effects and QBO flows into a general circulation model and study the sensitivity of meridional circulation and vertical velocity to the parameterizations at altitudes up to 100km. Stationary OGW effects gives changes up to 40% in the meridional velocity and associated ozone fluxes in the stratosphere. Transitions from the easterly to westerly QBO phase may alter meridional and vertical velocities by 60%.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5643-5670, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5643-2015, 2015
Transient simulations of the present and the last interglacial climate using a coupled general circulation model: effects of orbital acceleration
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5619-5641, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5619-2015, 2015
An approach for coupling higher and lower levels in marine ecosystem models and its application to the North Sea
Summary: This paper is a description of how very different higher and lower trophic level models (Ecopath with Ecosim) and ERSEM respectively can be coupled together using a metadata coupling system together with a number of examples of short and long range projections for end to end modelling. An extended discussion section outlines the challenges that will need to be met to develop useful end to end ecological modelling systems
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5577-5618, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5577-2015, 2015
Upscaling with the dynamic two-layer classification concept (D2C): TreeMig-2L, an efficient implementation of the forest-landscape model TreeMig
Summary: Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) often have high computational expenses, which the presented dynamic two-layer classification concept (D2C) aims to reduce. When implementing D2C into a DVM, a new layer for the dynamic grouping of grid-cells with similar climate and species compositions is introduced. The grouping of cells reduces the number of required calculations. With TreeMig-2L, I present how D2C can be implemented in a DVM and demonstrate that D2C can strongly reduce computational expenses.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5535-5575, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5535-2015, 2015
Discrete-Element bonded particle Sea Ice model DESIgn, version 1.3 – model description and implementation
Summary: Recent developments in observational and modeling techniques allow us to analyze sea ice with increasingly higher resolution. Instead of a continuous ice cover we observe a complex, constantly changing medium composed of interacting floes. Understanding these aspects of sea ice behavior requires new modeling methods, like the Discrete Element Sea Ice model DESIgn in which sea ice is treated as an assemblage of grains that freeze together or break apart in response to wind and ocean currents.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5481-5533, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5481-2015, 2015
Sensitivity of the WRF model to PBL parametrizations and nesting techniques: evaluation of surface wind over complex terrain
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5437-5479, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5437-2015, 2015
Application of all relevant feature selection for failure analysis of parameter-induced simulation crashes in climate models
Summary: Climate simulation crashes are caused by inadeqaute knowledge of parameters in models describing physical phenomena. We have performed reanalysis of the data on simulation crashes and have shown that they can be attributed to three parameters of the ocean model. This is significant improvement over original study, where crashes were attributed to eight parameters. Our results will help researchers to develop improved models.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5419-5435, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5419-2015, 2015
Simulation of atmospheric N2O with GEOS-Chem and its adjoint: evaluation of observational constraints
Summary: This paper introduces a new inversion framework for N2O using GEOS-Chem and its adjoint, which we employed in a series of observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the source and sink constraints provided by surface and aircraft-based N2O measurements. We also applied a new approach for estimating a posteriori uncertainty for high-dimensional inversions, and used it to quantify the spatial and temporal resolution of N2O emission constraints achieved with the current observing network.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5367-5418, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5367-2015, 2015
Development of a numerical system to improve particulate matter forecasts in South Korea using geostationary satellite-retrieved aerosol optical data over Northeast Asia
Summary: We developed an integrated air quality modeling system using AOD data retrieved from a geostationary satellite sensor, GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) over Northeast Asia with an application of spatio-temporal kriging method, and conducted short-term hindcast runs using the developed system. It appears that the ST-kriging approach can greatly reduce not only the errors and biases of AOD and PM10 predictions but also a computational burden of chemical weather forecast (CWF).
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5315-5366, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5315-2015, 2015
Adaptive wavelet simulation of global ocean dynamics
Summary: In order to easily enforce solid-wall boundary conditions in the presence of complex coastlines, we propose a new mass and energy conserving Brinkman penalization for the rotating shallow water equations. This penalization does not lead to higher wave speeds in the solid region. The error estimates for the penalization are derived analytically and verified numerically for linearized one dimensional equations. The penalization is implemented in a conservative dynamically adaptive wavelet method
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5265-5313, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5265-2015, 2015
Implementation of an optimal stomatal conductance model in the Australian Community Climate Earth Systems Simulator (ACCESS1.3b)
Summary: We implement a new stomatal conductance model within a land surface model coupled to a global climate model. The new model differs from the default in that it allows model parameters to vary by the different plant functional types, derived from global synthesis of observations. We show that the new scheme results in improvements in the model climatology and improves existing biases by up to 10-20%.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5235-5264, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5235-2015, 2015
FORest canopy atmosphere transfer (FORCAsT) 1.0: a 1-D model of biosphere–atmosphere chemical exchange
Summary: Volatile organic compounds released from forests into the atmosphere play a key role in governing atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and aerosol particles. We describe the development of a 1-D model that simulates the processes occurring within and above the forest canopy that regulate the transfer of these compounds and their products. We evaluate model performance by comparison of modelled concentrations against measurements from a field campaign at a northern Michigan forest site.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5183-5234, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5183-2015, 2015
A unified parameterization of clouds and turbulence using CLUBB and subcolumns in the Community Atmosphere Model
Summary: This study evaluates a unified cloud parameterization and a Monte Carlo microphysics interface that is implemented in CAM v5.3. We show mean climate and tropical variability results from global simulations. The model has a degradation in precipitation skill but improvements in short-wave cloud forcing, liquid water path, long-wave cloud forcing, precipitable water, and tropical wave simulation. We also show estimation of computational expense and sensitivity to number of subcolumns.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 5041-5088, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-5041-2015, 2015
Conservative interpolation between general spherical meshes
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 4979-4996, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-4979-2015, 2015
Competition between plant functional types in the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) v. 2.0
Summary: We use a modified form of the Lotka-Volterra (L-V) equations to simulate competition between plant functional types (PFTs) on a global-scale with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) version 2.0. Our modified L-V simulations compare well against observation-based records of PFT distributions, while simulations with unmodified L-V equations show significant biases. We include an appendix detailing all aspects of CTEM v. 2.0.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 4851-4948, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-4851-2015, 2015
Modelling spatial and temporal vegetation variability with the Climate Constrained Vegetation Index: evidence of CO2 fertilisation and of water stress in continental interiors
Summary: A model was developed to simulate spatio-temporal variations in vegetation in response to temperature, precipitation and atmospheric CO2 levels. The model reproduced variations in vegetation well; it showed a greater response to drought stress in N Hemisphere continents than previous implementations and showed a decline in vegetation during the US dust bowl (1930s and 1950s) and the drought of the century in the Sahel (1984). Vegetation greenness increased in response to atmospheric CO2 levels.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 4781-4821, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-4781-2015, 2015
The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): simulation design and preliminary results
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 4697-4736, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-4697-2015, 2015
ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), a new process based Agro-Land Surface Model: model description and evaluation over Europe
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 4653-4696, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-4653-2015, 2015
Sources of interannual yield variability in JULES-crop and implications for forcing with seasonal weather forecasts
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 4599-4621, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-4599-2015, 2015
Importance of bitwise identical reproducibility in earth system modeling and status report
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 4375-4400, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-4375-2015, 2015
Open-source modular solutions for flexural isostasy: gFlex v1.0
Summary: Earth's lithosphere bends beneath surface loads, such as ice, sediments, and mountain belts. The pattern of this bending, or flexural isostatic response, is a function of both the loads and the spatially-variable strength of the lithosphere. gFlex is an easy-to-use program to calculate flexural isostastic response, and may be used to better understand how ice sheets, glaciers, large lakes, sedimentary basins, volcanoes, and other surface loads interact with the solid Earth.
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 8, 4245-4292, doi:10.5194/gmdd-8-4245-2015, 2015