Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-7-9063-2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Development and technical paper
18 Dec 2014
Review status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD). The revised manuscript was not accepted.
On the wind stress formulation over shallow waters in atmospheric models
P. A. Jiménez1,2 and J. Dudhia3 1National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Laboratory, Boulder, CO, USA
2CIEMAT, División de Energías Renovables, Madrid, Spain
3National Center for Atmospheric Research, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, Boulder, CO, USA
Abstract. The wind stress formulation over shallow waters is investigated using year-long observations of the wind profile within the first 100 m of the atmosphere and mesoscale simulations. The model experiments use a range of planetary boundary layer parameterizations in order to quantify the uncertainty related to the turbulent closure assumptions, and thus isolate the dominant influence of the roughness formulation. Results indicate that a positive wind speed bias exists when the common open ocean formulation for roughness is adopted. An alternative formulation consistent with shallow water observations is necessary to reconcile model results with observations, providing the first modeling evidence supporting the increase of surface drag over shallow waters. Including ocean bathymetry as static input data to atmospheric models constitutes an area where further research should be oriented.

Citation: Jiménez, P. A. and Dudhia, J.: On the wind stress formulation over shallow waters in atmospheric models, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 7, 9063-9077, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-7-9063-2014, 2014.
P. A. Jiménez and J. Dudhia
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
 
RC C3142: 'Review of GMD-2014-213', Anonymous Referee #1, 27 Jan 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
AC C3578: 'Answer to comments reviewer # 1', Pedro Jimenez, 31 Mar 2015 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
RC C3405: 'Reviewer Comments', Anonymous Referee #2, 23 Feb 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
AC C3579: 'Answer comments reviewer # 2', Pedro Jimenez, 31 Mar 2015 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
EC C3417: 'Editorial comments', Hilary Weller, 24 Feb 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
 
RC C3420: 'Review', Anonymous Referee #3, 26 Feb 2015 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
AC C3580: 'Answer to comments reviewer # 3', Pedro Jimenez, 31 Mar 2015 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
SC C3495: 'Interactive comment on the manuscript "On the wind stress formulation over shallow waters in atmospheric models"', Gerald Steinfeld, 05 Mar 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
AC C3581: 'Answer to Steinfeld comments', Pedro Jimenez, 31 Mar 2015 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
SC C3498: 'Data issues', Jens Tambke, 06 Mar 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
AC C3582: 'Answer to Tambke's comments', Pedro Jimenez, 31 Mar 2015 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
EC C3583: 'Editorial comment', Hilary Weller, 31 Mar 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
 
EC C3672: 'Revised manuscript', Hilary Weller, 23 Apr 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
 
EC C3723: 'Justification for expected rejection, pending reviewers' comments', Hilary Weller, 10 Jun 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
AC C3725: 'Answer to editor comments', Pedro Jimenez, 11 Jun 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
 
EC C3744: 'Final discussions, reviewer comments and my decision', Hilary Weller, 25 Jun 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
AC C3751: 'Answer to editor comments', Pedro Jimenez, 26 Jun 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
EC C3754: 'Final decision', Hilary Weller, 26 Jun 2015 Printer-friendly Version 
P. A. Jiménez and J. Dudhia
P. A. Jiménez and J. Dudhia

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Short summary
In spite of the substantial observational evidence supporting a higher drag over shallow waters than over the open ocean, regional and global models widely use a single formulation valid for the open ocean. Results of this work indicate that adding the extra drag is necessary to reconcile model results with long term observations of the wind profile within the first 100 m of the atmosphere, being the first modeling evidence supporting the reported added drag over shallow waters.
In spite of the substantial observational evidence supporting a higher drag over shallow waters...
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