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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Review and perspective paper
26 May 2016
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of this manuscript was accepted for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD) and is expected to appear here in due course.
PMIP4-CMIP6: the contribution of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project to CMIP6
Masa Kageyama1, Pascale Braconnot1, Sandy P. Harrison2, Alan M. Haywood3, Johann Jungclaus4, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner5, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt1, Ayako Abe-Ouchi6,7, Samuel Albani8, Patrick J. Bartlein9, Chris Brierley10, Michel Crucifix11, Aisling Dolan3, Laura Fernandez-Donado12, Hubertus Fischer13, Peter O. Hopcroft14, Ruza F. Ivanovic3, Fabrice Lambert15, Dan J. Lunt14, Natalie M. Mahowald16, W. Richard Peltier17, Steven J. Phipps18, Didier M. Roche1,19, Gavin A. Schmidt20, Lev Tarasov21, Paul J. Valdes14, Qiong Zhang22, and Tianjun Zhou23 1Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris- Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2Centre for Past Climate Change and School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science (SAGES) University of Reading, Whiteknights, RG6 6AH, Reading, United Kingdom
3School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
4Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
5National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80305, United States of America
6Atmosphere Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8564, Japan
7Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-0001, Japan
8Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
9Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1251, United States of America
10University College London, Department of Geography, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
11Université catholique de Louvain, Earth and Life Institute, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
12Dpto. Física de la Tierra, Astronomía y Astrofísica II, Instituto de Geociencias (CSIC-UCM), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
13Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute & Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland
14School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
15Catholic University of Chile, Department of Physical Geography, Santiago, Chile
16Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Bradfield 1112, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, United States of America
17Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7, Canada
18Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
19Earth and Climate Cluster, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
20NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025, United States of America
21Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X7, Canada
22Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm, Sweden
23LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 9804, Beijing 100029, China
Abstract. The goal of the Palaeoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) is to understand the response of the climate system to changes in different climate forcings and to feedbacks. Through comparison with observations of the environmental impacts of these climate changes, or with climate reconstructions based on physical, chemical or biological records, PMIP also addresses the issue of how well state-of-the-art models simulate climate changes. Palaeoclimate states are radically different from those of the recent past documented by the instrumental record and thus provide an out-of-sample test of the models used for future climate projections and a way to assess whether they have the correct sensitivity to forcings and feedbacks. Five distinctly different periods have been selected as focus for the core palaeoclimate experiments that are designed to contribute to the objectives of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). This manuscript describes the motivation for the choice of these periods and the design of the numerical experiments, with a focus upon their novel features compared to the experiments performed in previous phases of PMIP and CMIP as well as the benefits of common analyses of the models across multiple climate states. It also describes the information needed to document each experiment and the model outputs required for analysis and benchmarking.

Citation: Kageyama, M., Braconnot, P., Harrison, S. P., Haywood, A. M., Jungclaus, J., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Peterschmitt, J.-Y., Abe-Ouchi, A., Albani, S., Bartlein, P. J., Brierley, C., Crucifix, M., Dolan, A., Fernandez-Donado, L., Fischer, H., Hopcroft, P. O., Ivanovic, R. F., Lambert, F., Lunt, D. J., Mahowald, N. M., Peltier, W. R., Phipps, S. J., Roche, D. M., Schmidt, G. A., Tarasov, L., Valdes, P. J., Zhang, Q., and Zhou, T.: PMIP4-CMIP6: the contribution of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project to CMIP6, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review, 2016.
Masa Kageyama et al.
Masa Kageyama et al.


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Short summary
The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) takes advantage of the existence of past climate states radically different from the recent past to test climate models used for climate projections and to better understand these climates. This paper describes the PMIP contribution to CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, 6th phase) and possible analyses based on PMIP results, as well as on other CMIP6 projects.
The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) takes advantage of the existence of...