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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model experiment description paper
24 Nov 2016
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD) and is expected to appear here in due course.
The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: the Last Millennium, Scientific Objective and Experimental Design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations
Johann H. Jungclaus1, Edouard Bard2, Mélanie Baroni2, Pascale Braconnot3, Jian Cao4, Louise P. Chini5, Tania Egorova6,7, Michael Evans8, J. Fidel González-Rouco9, Hugues Goosse10, Georges C. Hurtt5, Fortunat Joos11, Jed O. Kaplan12, Myriam Khodri13, Kees Klein Goldewijk14,15, Natalie Krivova16, Allegra N. LeGrande17, Stephan J. Lorenz1, Jürg Luterbacher18,19, Wenmin Man20, Malte Meinshausen21,22, Anders Moberg23, Christian Nehrbass-Ahles11, Bette I. Otto-Bliesner24, Stephen J. Phipps25, Julia Pongratz1, Eugene Rozanov6,7, Gavin A. Schmidt17, Hauke Schmidt1, Werner Schmutz6, Andrew Schurer26, Alexander I. Shapiro16, Michael Sigl27,28, Jason E. Smerdon29, Sami K. Solanki16, Claudia Timmreck1, Matthew Toohey30, Ilya G. Usoskin31, Sebastian Wagner32, Chi-Yu Wu16, Kok L. Yeo16, Davide Zanchettin33, Qiong Zhang23, and Eduardo Zorita32 1Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany
2CEREGE, Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, College de France, Technopole de l’Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence, France
3Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, LSCE/ IPSL, CEA–CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
4Earth System Modeling Center, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
5Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
6Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC), Davos, Switzerland
7Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
8Dept. of Geology and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
9Dept. of Astrophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IGEO (UCM-CSIC), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
10ELI/TECLIM, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
11Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
12Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
13Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climate, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, IPSL, UMR CNRS/IRD/MNHN, 75005 Paris, France
14Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands
15PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague/Bilthoven, the Netherlands
16Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen, Germany
17NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, USA
18Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
19Centre for International Development and Environmental Research, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
20LASG Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
21Australian-German Climate & Energy College, the University of Melbourne, Australia
22Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany
23Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Sweden
24National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80305, USA
25Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
26GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
27Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland
28Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
29Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY, USA
30GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany
31Space Climate Research Group and Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Finland
32Institute for Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany
33Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University of Venice, Mestre, Italy
Abstract. The pre-industrial millennium is among the periods selected by the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for experiments contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of PMIP (PMIP4). The past1000 transient simulations serve to investigate the response to (mainly) natural forcing under background conditions not too different from today, and to discriminate between forced and internally generated variability on interannual to centennial time scales. This manuscript describes the motivation and the experimental set-ups for the PMIP4-CMIP6 past1000 simulations, and discusses the forcing agents: orbital, solar, volcanic, land-use/land-cover changes, and variations in greenhouse gas concentrations. The past1000 simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium from 850 Common Era (CE) to 1849 CE have to be complemented by historical simulations (1850 to 2014 CE) following the CMIP6 protocol. The external forcings for the past1000 experiments have been adapted to provide a seamless transition across these time periods. Protocols for the past1000 simulations have been divided into three tiers. A default forcing data set has been defined for the “tier-1” (the CMIP6 past1000) experiment. However, the PMIP community has maintained the flexibility to conduct coordinated sensitivity experiments to explore uncertainty in forcing reconstructions as well as parameter uncertainty in dedicated “tier-2” simulations. Additional experiments (“tier-3”) are defined to foster collaborative model experiments focusing on the early instrumental period and to extend the temporal range and the scope of the simulations. This manuscript outlines current and future research foci and common analyses for collaborative work between the PMIP and the observational communities (reconstructions, instrumental data).

Citation: Jungclaus, J. H., Bard, E., Baroni, M., Braconnot, P., Cao, J., Chini, L. P., Egorova, T., Evans, M., González-Rouco, J. F., Goosse, H., Hurtt, G. C., Joos, F., Kaplan, J. O., Khodri, M., Klein Goldewijk, K., Krivova, N., LeGrande, A. N., Lorenz, S. J., Luterbacher, J., Man, W., Meinshausen, M., Moberg, A., Nehrbass-Ahles, C., Otto-Bliesner, B. I., Phipps, S. J., Pongratz, J., Rozanov, E., Schmidt, G. A., Schmidt, H., Schmutz, W., Schurer, A., Shapiro, A. I., Sigl, M., Smerdon, J. E., Solanki, S. K., Timmreck, C., Toohey, M., Usoskin, I. G., Wagner, S., Wu, C.-Y., Yeo, K. L., Zanchettin, D., Zhang, Q., and Zorita, E.: The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 3: the Last Millennium, Scientific Objective and Experimental Design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review, 2016.
Johann H. Jungclaus et al.
Johann H. Jungclaus et al.
Johann H. Jungclaus et al.


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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Climate variations during the last 2000 years are relatively well documented. Climate model simulations covering this period provide context for the evolution of the modern climate system and for the expected changes during the coming decades and centuries. They can help identify plausible mechanisms underlying palaeoclimatic observations and reconstructions. Here, we describe the forcing boundary conditions and the experimental protocol for simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium.
Climate variations during the last 2000 years are relatively well documented. Climate model...