Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Model description paper
18 Sep 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).
Simulating damage for wind storms in the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262)
Yi-Ying Chen1,a,*, Barry Gardiner2, Ferenc Pasztor1,b, Kristina Blennow3, James Ryder1, Aude Valade4, Kim Naudts1,c, Juliane Otto1,d, Matthew J. McGrath1, Carole Planque5, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert1,e,* 1Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE/IPSL), CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2Institute National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Villenave d’Ornon, France
3Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Alnarp, Sweden
4Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), CNRS-UPMC, Paris, France
5CNRM/GMME/VEGEO Météo France, Toulouse, France
anow at: Research Center for Environmental Changes (RCEC), Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
bnow at: Maritime Strategies International Ltd (MSI), London, England
cnow at: Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
dnow at: Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Hamburg, Germany
enow at: Department of Ecological Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract. Earth System Models (ESMs) are currently the most advanced tools with which to study the interactions between humans, ecosystem productivity and the climate. The inclusion of storm damage in ESMs has long been hampered by their big-leaf approach which ignores the canopy structure information that is required for process-based wind throw modelling. Recently the big-leaf assumptions in the large scale land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN were replaced by a three dimensional description of the canopy structure. This opened the way to the integration of the processes from the small-scale wind damage risk model ForestGALES into ORCHIDEE-CAN. The resulting enhanced model was completed by an empirical function to convert the difference between actual and critical wind speeds into forest damage. This new version of ORCHIDEE-CAN was parametrized over Sweden. Subsequently, the performance of the model was tested against data for historical storms in Southern Sweden between 1951 and 2010, and South-western France in 2009. In years without big storms, here defined as a storm damaging less than 15 × 106 m3 of wood in Sweden, the model error is 1.62 × 106 m3 which is about 100 % of the observed damage. For years with big storms, such as Gudrun in 2005, the model error increased to 5.05 × 106 m3 which is between 10 % and 50 % of the observed damage. When the same model parameters were used over France, the model reproduced a decrease in leaf area index and an increase in albedo, in accordance with SPOT-VGT and MODIS records following the passing of Cyclone Klaus in 2009. The current version of ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262) is therefore expected to have the capability to capture the dynamics of forest structure due to storm disturbance both at regional and global scales, although the empirical parameters calculating gustiness from the gridded wind fields and storm damage from critical wind speeds may benefit from regional fitting.

Citation: Chen, Y.-Y., Gardiner, B., Pasztor, F., Blennow, K., Ryder, J., Valade, A., Naudts, K., Otto, J., McGrath, M. J., Planque, C., and Luyssaert, S.: Simulating damage for wind storms in the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262), Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
Yi-Ying Chen et al.
Yi-Ying Chen et al.
Yi-Ying Chen et al.


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Short summary
The inclusion of process-based wind throw damage simulation in Earth System Models has been hampered by the big-leaf approach which cannot provide the canopy structure information that is required. We adapted the physics from ForestGALES to calculate CWS at large scales. When all parameters are constrained within observed ranges we can simulate a very reasonable damage for a large storm over Sweden and canopy structure changes of les landes forest in France due to the storm Klaus.
The inclusion of process-based wind throw damage simulation in Earth System Models has been...