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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-18
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Model experiment description paper
23 Feb 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of this manuscript was accepted for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD) and is expected to appear here in due course.
The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments
Masa Kageyama1, Samuel Albani1, Pascale Braconnot1, Sandy P. Harrison2, Peter O. Hopcroft3, Ruza F. Ivanovic4, Fabrice Lambert5, Olivier Marti1, W. Richard Peltier6, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt1, Didier M. Roche1,7, Lev Tarasov8, Xu Zhang9, Esther C. Brady10, Alan M. Haywood4, Allegra N. LeGrande11, Daniel J. Lunt3, Natalie M. Mahowald12, Uwe Mikolajewicz13, Kerim H. Nisancioglu14,15,16, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner10, Hans Renssen7,17, Robert A. Tomas10, Qiong Zhang18, Ayako Abe-Ouchi19, Patrick J. Bartlein20, Jian Cao21, Gerrit Lohmann9, Rumi Ohgaito22, Xiaoxu Shi9, Evgeny Volodin23, Kohei Yoshida24, Xiao Zhang25,26, and Weipeng Zheng27 1Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2Centre for Past Climate Change and School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science (SAGES) University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AH, United Kingdom
3School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
4School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
5Department of Physical Geography, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
6Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7, Canada
7Earth and Climate Cluster, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
8Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John’s, NL, A1B 3X7, Canada
9Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bussestrasse 24, 27570, Bremerhaven, Germany
10National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80305, United States of America
11NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025, United States of America
12Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Bradfield 1112, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, United States of America
13Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
14Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Uni Research Climate, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen, Norway
15Department of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Allégaten 41, 5007 Bergen, Norway
16Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
17Department of Natural Sciences and Environmental Health, University College of Southeast Norway
18Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm, Sweden
19Atmosphere Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8564, Japan
20Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1251, United States of America
21Earth System Modeling Center, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
22Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan
23Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
24Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Japan
25School of Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University of Information sciences and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China
26International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96822, United States of America
27State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (LASG), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of China, 100029, Beijing, China
Abstract. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21,000 years ago) is one of the suite of paleoclimate simulations included in the current phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). It is an interval when insolation was similar to present, but global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea level was at or close to a minimum, greenhouse gas concentrations were lower, atmospheric aerosol loadings were higher than today, and vegetation and land-surface characteristics were different from today. The LGM has been a focus for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) since its inception, and thus many of the problems that might be associated with simulating such a radically different climate are well documented. The LGM state provides an ideal case study for evaluating climate model performance because the changes in forcing and temperature between the LGM and pre-industrial are of the same order of magnitude as those projected for the end of the 21st century. Thus, the CMIP6 LGM experiment could provide additional information that can be used to constrain estimates of climate sensitivity. The design of the Tier 1 LGM experiment (lgm) includes an assessment of uncertainties in boundary conditions, in particular through the use of different reconstructions of the ice sheets and of the change in dust forcing. Additional sensitivity experiments have been designed to quantify feedbacks associated with land-surface changes and aerosol loadings, and to isolate the role of individual forcings. Model analysis and evaluation will capitalise on the relative abundance of palaeoenvironmental observations and quantitative climate reconstructions already available for the LGM.

Citation: Kageyama, M., Albani, S., Braconnot, P., Harrison, S. P., Hopcroft, P. O., Ivanovic, R. F., Lambert, F., Marti, O., Peltier, W. R., Peterschmitt, J.-Y., Roche, D. M., Tarasov, L., Zhang, X., Brady, E. C., Haywood, A. M., LeGrande, A. N., Lunt, D. J., Mahowald, N. M., Mikolajewicz, U., Nisancioglu, K. H., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Renssen, H., Tomas, R. A., Zhang, Q., Abe-Ouchi, A., Bartlein, P. J., Cao, J., Lohmann, G., Ohgaito, R., Shi, X., Volodin, E., Yoshida, K., Zhang, X., and Zheng, W.: The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 – Part 4: Scientific objectives and experimental design of the PMIP4-CMIP6 Last Glacial Maximum experiments and PMIP4 sensitivity experiments, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-18, in review, 2017.
Masa Kageyama et al.
Masa Kageyama et al.

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Short summary
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21,000 years ago) is an interval when global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea level close to a minimum, greenhouse gas concentrations were lower, atmospheric aerosol loadings were higher than today, and vegetation and land-surface characteristics were different from today. This manuscript describes the implementation of the LGM numerical experiment for the PMIP4-CMIP6 modelling intercomparison projects and the associated sensitivity experiments.
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21,000 years ago) is an interval when global ice volume was at a...
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