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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Model description paper
16 Oct 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).
Development and calibration of a global hydrological model for integrated assessment modeling
Tingju Zhu1, Petra Döll2,3, Hannes Müller Schmied2,3, Claudia Ringler1, and Mark W. Rosegrant1 1International Food Policy Research Institute, 1201 Eye St., NW, Washington, DC, 20005-3915, USA
2Institute of Physical Geography, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Altenhöferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
3Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Senckenberganlage 25, 60325 Frankfurt, Germany
Abstract. This paper describes the IMPACT Global Hydrological Model (IGHM), a component of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) integrated modeling system. IMPACT has been developed in the early 1990s to identify and analyze long-term challenges and opportunities for food, agriculture, and natural resources at global and regional scales and builds on a series of previous food demand and supply projections models developed at the International Food Policy Research Institute since the early 1980s. The IGHM has been developed to assess water availability and variability as drivers of water use and irrigated crop production in IMPACT. It adopts a saturation runoff generation scheme and uses a linear groundwater reservoir to simulate base flow in 0.5º latitude by 0.5º longitude grid cells over the global land surface excluding Antarctica. The IGHM has four cell-specific calibration parameters, which are determined through maximizing the Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE) with a genetic algorithm at the grid cell level, using gridded natural runoff series generated by the WaterGAP Global Hydrological Model (WGHM). During the calibration and validation periods, globally, the majority of grid cells attain KGE values greater than 0.50. As a meta-model of the more computationally expensive WGHM, IGHM transfers the climate-hydrology dynamics provided by WGHM into the integrated IMPACT model at a lower computational cost and enables coupling hydrology and other related processes considered in IMPACT which are important for analyzing long-term water and food security under a range of environmental and socioeconomic changes.
Citation: Zhu, T., Döll, P., Müller Schmied, H., Ringler, C., and Rosegrant, M. W.: Development and calibration of a global hydrological model for integrated assessment modeling, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
Tingju Zhu et al.
Tingju Zhu et al.
Tingju Zhu et al.


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Short summary
The global hydrological model IGHM was developed to simulate water availability over global land areas month by month. The simulated water availability is for analyzing irrigation water supply and crop production in a global water and food projections model, IMPACT. Water availability simulated by another global hydrological model, WGHM, was used to determine parameter values in IGHM. This paper describes the structure of IGHM, the method of its parameter determination, and its performance.
The global hydrological model IGHM was developed to simulate water availability over global land...