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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-222
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Model description paper
05 Dec 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).
CTDAS-Lagrange v1.0: A high-resolution data assimilation system for regional carbon dioxide observations
Wei He1,2, Ivar R. van der Velde3,4, Arlyn E. Andrews3, Colm Sweeney3,4, John Miller3, Pieter Tans3, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx5,6, Thomas Nehrkorn7, Marikate Mountain7, Weimin Ju1, Wouter Peters2,5, and Huilin Chen2,4 1International Institute for Earth System Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
2Center for Isotope Research (CIO), Energy and Sustainability Research Institute Groningen (ESRIG), University of Groningen, Groningen, 9747 AG, The Netherlands
3Global Monitoring Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado, USA
4Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
5Department of Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
6Utrecht University, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht University, the Netherlands
7Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Lexington, MA, USA
Abstract. We have implemented a regional carbon dioxide data assimilation system based on the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research meteorological fields (WRF-STILT). With this system, named as CTDAS‑Lagrange, we simultaneously optimize terrestrial biosphere fluxes and four parameters that adjust the lateral boundary conditions (BCs) against CO2 observations from the NOAA ESRL North America tall tower and aircraft Programmable Flask Packages (PFPs) sampling program. Least-squares optimization is performed with a time-stepping ensemble Kalman smoother, over a time window of 10 days and assimilating sequentially a time series of observations. Because the WRF-STILT footprints are pre-computed, it is computationally efficient to run the CTDAS-Lagrange system.

To estimate the uncertainties of the optimized fluxes from the system, we performed sensitivity tests with various a priori biosphere fluxes (SiBCASA, SiB3, CT2013B) and BCs (optimized mole fraction fields from CT2013B and CTE2014, and an empirical data set derived from aircraft observations), as well as with a variety of choices on the ways that fluxes are adjusted (additive or multiplicative), covariance length scales, biosphere flux covariances, BC parameter uncertainties, and model-data mismatches. In pseudo-data experiments, we show that in our implementation the additive flux adjustment method is more flexible in optimizing NEE than the multiplicative flux adjustment method, and that the CTDAS-Lagrange system has the ability to correct for the potential biases in the lateral boundary conditions and to resolve large biases in the prior biosphere fluxes.

Using real observations, we have derived a range of estimates for the optimized carbon fluxes from a series of sensitivity tests, which places the North American carbon sink for the year 2010 in a range from −0.92 to −1.26 PgC/yr. This is comparable to the TM5-based estimates of CarbonTracker (version CT2016, −0.91 ± 1.10 PgC/yr) and CarbonTracker Europe (version CTE2016, −0.91 ± 0.31 PgC/yr). We conclude that CTDAS-Lagrange can offer a versatile and computationally attractive alternative to these global systems for regional estimates of carbon fluxes, which can take advantage of high-resolution Lagrangian footprints that are increasingly easy to obtain.


Citation: He, W., van der Velde, I. R., Andrews, A. E., Sweeney, C., Miller, J., Tans, P., van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T., Nehrkorn, T., Mountain, M., Ju, W., Peters, W., and Chen, H.: CTDAS-Lagrange v1.0: A high-resolution data assimilation system for regional carbon dioxide observations, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-222, in review, 2017.
Wei He et al.
Wei He et al.

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Short summary
We have implemented a regional carbon dioxide data assimilation system based on the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model. The system, named as CTDAS‑Lagrange, was used to derive the North American carbon sink for the year 2010. The CTDAS-Lagrange can offer a versatile and computationally attractive alternative to the global systems for regional estimates of carbon fluxes, which can take advantage of high-resolution Lagrangian footprints.
We have implemented a regional carbon dioxide data assimilation system based on the...
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