Journal cover Journal topic
Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-257
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Model description paper
20 Nov 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).
A General Lake Model (GLM 2.4) for linking with high-frequency sensor data from the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON)
Matthew R. Hipsey1, Louise C. Bruce1, Casper Boon1, Brendan Busch1, Cayelan C. Carey2, David P. Hamilton3, Paul C. Hanson4, Jordan S. Read5, Eduardo de Sousa1, Michael Weber6, and Luke A. Winslow7 1UWA School of Agriculture & Environment, The University of Western Australia, Crawley WA, 6009, Australia
2Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA
3Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan QLD, 4111, Australia
4Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison WI, USA
5Center for Integrated Data Analytics, US Geological Survey, Middleton WI, USA
6Department of Lake Research, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Magdeburg, Germany
7Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY, USA
Abstract. The General Lake Model (GLM) is a one-dimensional open-source model code designed to simulate the hydrodynamics of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. GLM was developed to support the science needs of the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), a network of lake sensors and researchers attempting to understand lake functioning and address questions about how lakes around the world vary in response to climate and land-use change. The scale and diversity of lake types, locations and sizes, as well as the observational data within GLEON, created the need for a robust community model of lake dynamics with sufficient flexibility to accommodate a range of scientific and management needs of the GLEON community. This paper summarises the scientific basis and numerical implementation of the model algorithms, including details of sub-models that simulate surface heat exchange and ice-cover dynamics, vertical mixing and inflow/outflow dynamics. A summary of typical parameter values for lakes and reservoirs collated from a range of sources is included. GLM supports a dynamic coupling with biogeochemical and ecological modelling libraries for integrated simulations of water quality and ecosystem health. An overview of approaches for integration with other models, and utilities for the analysis of model outputs and for undertaking sensitivity and uncertainty assessments is also provided. Finally, we discuss application of the model within a distributed cloud-computing environment, and as a tool to support learning of network participants.

Citation: Hipsey, M. R., Bruce, L. C., Boon, C., Busch, B., Carey, C. C., Hamilton, D. P., Hanson, P. C., Read, J. S., de Sousa, E., Weber, M., and Winslow, L. A.: A General Lake Model (GLM 2.4) for linking with high-frequency sensor data from the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2017-257, in review, 2017.
Matthew R. Hipsey et al.
Matthew R. Hipsey et al.
Matthew R. Hipsey et al.

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Short summary
The General Lake Model (GLM) has been developed to undertake simulation of a diverse range of lakes and reservoirs, thereby supporting the science needs of the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), a network of lake sensors and researchers attempting to understand lake functioning and address questions about how lakes around the world vary in response to climate and land-use change. The paper describes the science-basis and application of the model.
The General Lake Model (GLM) has been developed to undertake simulation of a diverse range of...
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