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Discussion papers | Copyright
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Development and technical paper 09 Jul 2018

Development and technical paper | 09 Jul 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).

A hybrid GCM paleo ice-sheet model, ANICE2.1 – HadCM3@Bristolv1.0: set up and benchmark experiments

Constantijn J. Berends, Bas de Boer, and Roderik S. W. van de Wal Constantijn J. Berends et al.
  • Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands

Abstract. Fully coupled ice-sheet-climate modelling over 10,000–100,000-year time scales on high spatial and temporal resolution remains beyond the capability of current computational systems. Hybrid GCM-ice-sheet modelling offers a middle ground, balancing the need to accurately capture both long-term processes, in particular circulation driven changes in precipitation, and processes requiring a high spatial resolution like ablation. Here, we present and evaluate a model set-up that forces the ANICE 3D thermodynamic ice-sheet-shelf model calculating all ice on Earth, with pre-calculated output from several steady-state simulations with the HadCM3 general circulation model (GCM), using a so-called matrix method of coupling both components, where simulations with various levels of pCO2 and ice-sheet configuration are combined to form a time-continuous transient climate forcing consistent with the modelled ice-sheets. We address the difficulties in downscaling low-resolution GCM output to the higher-resolution grid of an ice-sheet model, and account for differences between GCM and ice-sheet model surface topography ranging from interglacial to glacial conditions. As a benchmark experiment to assess the validity of this model set-up, we perform a simulation of the entire last glacial cycle, from 120kyr ago to present-day. The simulated eustatic sea-level drop at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) for the combined Antarctic, Greenland, Eurasian and North-American ice-sheets amounts to 100m, in line with many other studies. The simulated ice-sheets at LGM agree well with the ICE-5G reconstruction and the more recent DATED-1 reconstruction in terms of total volume and geographical location of the ice sheets. Moreover, modelled benthic oxygen isotope abundance and the relative contributions from global ice volume and deep-water temperature agree well with available data, as do surface temperature histories for the Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets. This model strategy can be used to create time-continuous ice-sheet distribution and sea-level reconstructions for geological periods up to several millions of years in duration, capturing climate model driven variations in the mass balance of the ice sheet.

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Constantijn J. Berends et al.
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Constantijn J. Berends et al.
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Latest update: 19 Aug 2018
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
We have devised a novel way to couple a climate model to an ice-sheet model. Usually, climate models are too slow to simulate more than a few centuries, whereas our new model set-up can simulate a full 120,000 year ice age in about 12 hours. This makes it possible to look at the interactions between global climate and ice-sheets on long time-scales - something which is relevant for both research into past climate and for future projections.
We have devised a novel way to couple a climate model to an ice-sheet model. Usually, climate...