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Discussion papers | Copyright
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Development and technical paper 09 Jul 2018

Development and technical paper | 09 Jul 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).

A hybrid GCM paleo ice-sheet model, ANICE2.1 – HadCM3@Bristolv1.0: set up and benchmark experiments

Constantijn J. Berends, Bas de Boer, and Roderik S. W. van de Wal Constantijn J. Berends et al.
  • Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands

Abstract. Fully coupled ice-sheet-climate modelling over 10,000–100,000-year time scales on high spatial and temporal resolution remains beyond the capability of current computational systems. Hybrid GCM-ice-sheet modelling offers a middle ground, balancing the need to accurately capture both long-term processes, in particular circulation driven changes in precipitation, and processes requiring a high spatial resolution like ablation. Here, we present and evaluate a model set-up that forces the ANICE 3D thermodynamic ice-sheet-shelf model calculating all ice on Earth, with pre-calculated output from several steady-state simulations with the HadCM3 general circulation model (GCM), using a so-called matrix method of coupling both components, where simulations with various levels of pCO2 and ice-sheet configuration are combined to form a time-continuous transient climate forcing consistent with the modelled ice-sheets. We address the difficulties in downscaling low-resolution GCM output to the higher-resolution grid of an ice-sheet model, and account for differences between GCM and ice-sheet model surface topography ranging from interglacial to glacial conditions. As a benchmark experiment to assess the validity of this model set-up, we perform a simulation of the entire last glacial cycle, from 120kyr ago to present-day. The simulated eustatic sea-level drop at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM) for the combined Antarctic, Greenland, Eurasian and North-American ice-sheets amounts to 100m, in line with many other studies. The simulated ice-sheets at LGM agree well with the ICE-5G reconstruction and the more recent DATED-1 reconstruction in terms of total volume and geographical location of the ice sheets. Moreover, modelled benthic oxygen isotope abundance and the relative contributions from global ice volume and deep-water temperature agree well with available data, as do surface temperature histories for the Greenland and Antarctic ice-sheets. This model strategy can be used to create time-continuous ice-sheet distribution and sea-level reconstructions for geological periods up to several millions of years in duration, capturing climate model driven variations in the mass balance of the ice sheet.

Constantijn J. Berends et al.
Interactive discussion
Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Constantijn J. Berends et al.
Constantijn J. Berends et al.
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Latest update: 18 Oct 2018
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
We have devised a novel way to couple a climate model to an ice-sheet model. Usually, climate models are too slow to simulate more than a few centuries, whereas our new model set-up can simulate a full 120,000 year ice age in about 12 hours. This makes it possible to look at the interactions between global climate and ice-sheets on long time-scales - something which is relevant for both research into past climate and for future projections.
We have devised a novel way to couple a climate model to an ice-sheet model. Usually, climate...