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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-286
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-286
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Model evaluation paper 17 Dec 2018

Model evaluation paper | 17 Dec 2018

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).

Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2) for High-Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP)

Oliver Gutjahr1, Dian Putrasahan1, Katja Lohmann1, Johann H. Jungclaus1, Jin-Song von Storch1, Nils Brüggemann1,2, Helmuth Haak1, and Achim Stössel3 Oliver Gutjahr et al.
  • 1Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
  • 2University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 3Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

Abstract. As a contribution towards improving the climate mean states of the atmosphere and the ocean in Earth System Models (ESMs), we compare several coupled simulations conducted with the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) following the HighResMIP protocol. Our simulations allow to analyse the separate effects of increasing the horizontal resolution of the ocean (0.4° to 0.1°) and atmosphere (T127 to T255) submodels, and the effects of substituting the Pacanowski and Philander (PP) vertical ocean mixing scheme with the K-Profile Parameterization (KPP).

The results show clearly distinguishable effects from all three factors. The eddy-resolving ocean removes biases in the ocean interior and in the atmosphere. This leads to an important conclusion that ocean eddies have a major impact on the large-scale temperature distribution in the atmosphere, and on temperature and salinity distributions in the ocean. The near-surface wind forcing reduces with a T255 atmosphere and improves ocean mixed layer depths in both hemisphere. The reduced wind forcing further slows the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and reduces the transport through Drake Passage to observed values. In the North Atlantic, however, it causes a slow down of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) due to a slower subpolar gyre, when the PP scheme is used. The KPP scheme causes stronger open-ocean convection that spins up the gyres and leads to a stronger and stable AMOC, when coupled to the T255 atmosphere, maintaining all the positive effects of a higher resolved atmosphere.

Oliver Gutjahr et al.
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We analyse how climatic mean states of the atmosphere and ocean change with increasing the horizontal model resolution of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM1.2) and how they are affected by the representation of vertical mixing in the ocean. It is in particular an eddy resolving ocean that reduces biases not only in the ocean but also in the atmosphere. The vertical mixing scheme affects the strength and stability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).
We analyse how climatic mean states of the atmosphere and ocean change with increasing the...
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