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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-292
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2018-292
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Model description paper 14 Feb 2019

Model description paper | 14 Feb 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).

VISIR-I.b: waves and ocean currents for energy efficient navigation

Gianandrea Mannarini and Lorenzo Carelli Gianandrea Mannarini and Lorenzo Carelli
  • CMCC, Centro Euro–Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, via Augusto Imperatore 16, 73100 Lecce, Italy

Abstract. VISIR-I.b, the latest development of the ship routing model published in Mannarini et al. (2016a), is here presented.

The new model version targets large ocean-going vessels by accounting for both waves and ocean currents. In order to effectively use currents in a graph-search method, new equations are derived and validated versus analytical benchmarks.

A case study is computed in the Atlantic Ocean, on a route from the Chesapeake Bay to the Mediterranean Sea and vice versa. Ocean analysis fields from data-assimilative models (for both ocean state and hydrodynamics) are employed. The impact of waves and ocean currents on transatlantic crossings is assessed through mapping of the spatial variability of the routes, analysis of their kinematics, distribution of the optimal voyage duration vs. its length, and impact on the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator of the International Maritime Organization. It is distinguished between sailing with or against the main ocean current. The seasonal dependence of the savings is evaluated, indicating, for the featured case study, larger savings during the summer crossings and larger intra-monthly variability in winter. The monthly-mean savings sum up to values between 3 and 12 %, while the contribution of ocean currents is between 1 and 4 %. Also, several other ocean routes are considered, providing a pan-Atlantic scenario assessment of the potential gains in energy efficiency from optimal tracks and linking them to regional meteo-oceanographic features.

Gianandrea Mannarini and Lorenzo Carelli
Interactive discussion
Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Gianandrea Mannarini and Lorenzo Carelli
Data sets

Support Assets for Figs and Tabs in gmd-2018-292 G. Mannarini and L. Carelli https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2556801

Model code and software

VISIR-1.b ship routing model G. Mannarini and L. Carelli https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2563074

Video supplement

optimal tracks for USNFK-ESALG route in 2017, accounting for CMEMS waves G. Mannarini and L. Carelli https://doi.org/10.5446/38218

optimal tracks for USNFK-ESALG route in 2017, accounting for both CMEMS waves and ocean currents G. Mannarini and L. Carelli https://doi.org/10.5446/38483

optimal tracks for ESALG-USNFK route in 2017, accounting for CMEMS waves G. Mannarini and L. Carelli https://doi.org/10.5446/38484

optimal tracks for ESALG-USNFK route in 2017, accounting for both CMEMS waves and ocean currents G. Mannarini and L. Carelli https://doi.org/10.5446/38482

Gianandrea Mannarini and Lorenzo Carelli
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Short summary
The VISIR ship routing model is updated in order to cope with ocean currents. Currents are employed together with waves for computing optimal ship tracks in the Atlantic Ocean. These tracks show a great seasonal and regional variability, following a variable influence of waves and currents. We assess how these tracks contribute to voyage energy efficiency gains using a standard indicator of the International Maritime Organization. The new model features are validated vs. an exact benchmark.
The VISIR ship routing model is updated in order to cope with ocean currents. Currents are...
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