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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-2
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-2
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Model evaluation paper 15 Jan 2019

Model evaluation paper | 15 Jan 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).

Description and evaluation of the process-based forest model 4C at four European forest sites

Petra Lasch-Born1, Felicitas Suckow1, Christopher O. P. Reyer1, Martin Gutsch1, Chris Kollas1,2, Franz-Werner Badeck3, Harald K. M. Bugmann4, Rüdiger Grote5, Cornelia Fürstenau6, and Jörg Schaber7 Petra Lasch-Born et al.
  • 1Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, P.O. Box 60 12 03, 14412 Potsdam, Germany
  • 2German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Unit 43: Epidemiology, Zoonoses and Antimicrobial Resistance, Department Biological Safety, Max-Dohrn-Straße 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany
  • 3Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, via S. Protaso, 302, 29017 Fiorenzuola d'Arda PC, Italy
  • 4Forest Ecology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
  • 5Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU), Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
  • 6Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Institut für Informatik, Heinz Nixdorf Chair for Distributed Information Systems, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 1-4, 07743 Jena, Germany
  • 7EXCO GmbH, Adam-Opel-Str. 9-11, 67227 Frankenthal, Germany

Abstract. The process-based model 4C (FORESEE) has been developed over the past twenty years. The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive description of the main features of 4C and to present an evaluation of the model at four different forest sites across Europe. The evaluation was focused on growth parameters, carbon, water and heat fluxes. The main data source for the evaluation was the PROFOUND database. We applied different statistical metrics of evaluation and compared the inter-annual and inter-monthly variability of observed and simulated carbon and water fluxes. The ability to reproduce forest growth differs from site to site and is best for the pine stand site Peitz. The model's performance in simulating carbon and water fluxes was very satisfactory on daily and monthly time scales in contrast to the annual time scale. This underlines the conclusion that processes that are either not represented in dependence on on medium- to long-term dynamic influences such as allocation, or those that are not represented at all but may have a large impact at specific sites – such as the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and ground vegetation growth – need to be elaborated for general forest growth investigations under climate change. On the other hand, 4C has shown a great potential for improvement since it emphasizes the representation of boundary conditions such as soil temperature at different depths. Therefore, more spatial differentiation of processes such as organ-specific respiration should easily be accomplished. Nonetheless, by using the PROFOUND database we were able to demonstrate the applicability and reliability of 4C.

Petra Lasch-Born et al.
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Status: open (until 12 Mar 2019)
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Short summary
The process-based model 4C has been developed over the past twenty years. The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive description of the main features of 4C and to present an evaluation of the model at four different forest sites across Europe. The evaluation was focused on growth parameters, carbon, water and heat fluxes using data from the PROFOUND database. The model's performance in simulating carbon and water fluxes was very satisfactory on daily and monthly time scales.
The process-based model 4C has been developed over the past twenty years. The objective of this...
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