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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-347
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-347
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: model description paper 15 Jan 2020

Submitted as: model description paper | 15 Jan 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal GMD.

Ocean biogeochemistry in the Norwegian Earth System Model version 2 (NorESM2)

Jerry F. Tjiputra1, Jörg Schwinger1, Mats Bentsen1, Anne L. Morée2, Shuang Gao3, Ingo Bethke2, Christoph Heinze2, Nadine Goris1, Alok Gupta1, Yanchun He4, Dirk Olivié5, Øyvind Seland5, and Michael Schulz5 Jerry F. Tjiputra et al.
  • 1NORCE Norwegian Research Centre and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 2Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 3Institute of Marine Research and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
  • 4Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Centre, Bergen, Norway
  • 5Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway

Abstract. The ocean carbon cycle is a key player in the climate system through its role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration as well as other processes that alter the Earth's radiative balance. In the second version of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM2), the oceanic carbon cycle component has gone through numerous updates that include, amongst others, improved process representations, increased interactions with the atmosphere, and additional new tracers. Oceanic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is now prognostically simulated and its fluxes are directly coupled with the atmospheric component, allowing for a direct feedback to the climate. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and additional external inputs of other biogeochemical tracers through riverine are recently included in the model. The implementation of new tracers such as 'preformed' and 'natural' tracers enables a separation of physical from biogeochemical drivers as well as of internal from external forcings and hence a better diagnostic of the simulated biogeochemical variability. Carbon isotope tracers have been implemented and will be relevant for studying long-term past climate changes. Here, we describe these new model implementations and present the evaluation of the model's performance in simulating the observed climatological states of water column biogeochemistry as well as in simulating the transient evolution over the historical period. Compared to its predecessor NorESM1, the new model's performance has improved considerably in many aspects. In the interior, the observed spatial patterns of nutrients, oxygen, and carbon chemistry are better reproduced, reducing the overall model biases. A new set of ecosystem parameters and improved mixed layer dynamics improves the representation of upper ocean processes (biological production and air-sea CO2 fluxes) at seasonal time scale. Transient warming and air-sea CO2 fluxes over the historical period are also in good agreement with observation-based estimates. NorESM2 participates in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) through DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) and several endorsed MIP-simulations.

Jerry F. Tjiputra et al.

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Latest update: 28 Feb 2020
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Short summary
The ocean biogeochemistry plays an important role for determining the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Earth system models, which are regularly used to study and project future climate change, generally include ocean biogeochemistry component. Prior to its application, such models are rigorously validated against real-world observations. In this study, we evaluate the ability of the ocean biogeochemistry of Norwegian Earth System Model version 2 in simulating various data sets.
The ocean biogeochemistry plays an important role for determining the atmospheric carbon dioxide...
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