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Geoscientific Model Development An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-45
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-45
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Model description paper 27 Mar 2019

Model description paper | 27 Mar 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Geoscientific Model Development (GMD).

The biophysics, ecology, and biogeochemistry of functionally diverse, vertically- and horizontally-heterogeneous ecosystems: the Ecosystem Demography Model, version 2.2 — Part 1: Model description

Marcos Longo1,2,3, Ryan G. Knox4,5, David M. Medvigy6, Naomi M. Levine7, Michael C. Dietze8, Yeonjoo Kim9, Abigail L. S. Swann10, Ke Zhang11, Christine R. Rollinson12, Rafael L. Bras13, Steven C. Wofsy1, and Paul R. Moorcroft1 Marcos Longo et al.
  • 1Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2Embrapa Agricultural Informatics, Campinas, SP, Brazil
  • 3Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 5Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 6University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, United States
  • 7University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 8Boston University, Boston, MA, United States
  • 9Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea
  • 10University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
  • 11Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
  • 12The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL, United States
  • 13Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States

Abstract. Earth System Models (ESMs) have been developed to represent the role of terrestrial ecosystems on the energy, water, and carbon cycles. However, many ESMs still lack representation of within-ecosystem heterogeneity and diversity. In this manuscript, we present the Ecosystem Demography Model version 2.2 (ED-2.2). In ED-2.2, the biophysical and physiological cycles account for the horizontal and vertical heterogeneity of the ecosystem: the energy, water, and carbon cycles are solved separately for each group of individual trees of similar size and functional group (cohorts) living in a micro-environment with similar disturbance history (patches). We define the equations that describe the energy, water, and carbon cycles in terms of total energy, water, and carbon, which simplifies the ordinary differential equations and guarantees excellent conservation of these quantities in long-term simulation ( < 0.1 % error over 50 years). We also show examples of ED-2.2 simulation results at single sites and across tropical South America. These results demonstrate the model's ability to characterize the variability of ecosystem structure, composition and functioning both at stand- and continental-scales. In addition, a detailed model evaluation was carried out and presented in a companion paper. Finally, we highlight some of the ongoing developments in ED-2.2 that aim at reducing the uncertainties identified in this study and the inclusion of processes hitherto not represented in the model.

Marcos Longo et al.
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Marcos Longo et al.
Model code and software

ED-2.2 source code M. Longo, R. Knox, D. M. Medvigy, N. M. Levine, M. Dietze, A. L. S. Swann, K. Zhang, C. Rollinson, M. di Porcia e Brugnera, D. Scott, S. P. Serbin, R. Kooper, A. Pourmokhtarian, A. Shiklomanov, and T. Viskari https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2579481

Marcos Longo et al.
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Short summary
Our paper describes the Ecosystem Demography Model. This computer program calculates how plants and ground exchange heat, water, and carbon with the air, and how plants grow, reproduce and die in different climates. Most models simplify forests to an average big tree. We consider that tall, deep-rooted trees get more light and water than small plants, and that some plants can with shade and drought. This diversity helps us to better explain how plants live and interact with the atmosphere.
Our paper describes the Ecosystem Demography Model. This computer program calculates how plants...
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